How to Cool the Arctic, John Nissen, AMEG December 2011:
Which is the most viable method of emergency cooling of the Arctic to prevent runaway global heating? There are several approaches for cooling the Arctic and saving the sea ice, some involving the reduction of heat flux into the Arctic and others involving the increase in heat flux out.
Probably we will need a combination.
Reduction of heat in
1. SRM (solar radiation management, by increasing albedo to reflect more sunlight back into space)
1.1 Stratospheric aerosols
1.1.1 SO2 *
1.1.2 TiO2 *
1.1.3 Other materials, e.g., silicate (*?)
1.2 Cloud brightening *
1.3 Tropospheric aerosols
1.3.1 Add sulphate aerosols (* if can't get into stratosphere, see 1.1.1)
1.3.2 Don't remove sulphate aerosols
Encourage ships and aircraft to burn fuel with high/higher sulphur content! **
1.4 Increase surface albedo
1.4.1 Cloud seeding to make it snow on bare ground *
1.4.2 LAIR to put frost on ground (* if study shows viable method)
1.4.3 Drain pools, ponds and lakes
1.5 Water brightening
1.5.1 Bubbles in the surface water
1.5.2 Reflective layer, e.g. bio material
2. Reduction of heat transfer into Arctic
2.1 Reduction of river flow into the Arctic Ocean
2.2 Reduction of ocean currents into the Arctic
2.2.1 Slow the current through the Bering Strait (*?)
2.3 Block ice exit
Ice "coolth" out of the Arctic is equivalent to water warmth into the Arctic.
3. TRM (thermal radiation management, by allowing more thermal radiation into space)
3.1 Cloud removal
3.1.1 Stratus cloud removal *
3.2 Exposing water at a time when the net heat is outgoing
3.2.1 Removing ice in the autumn (but study is needed on net effect)
The above all amount to cooling action. There's also the possibility to thicken the ice in order to make it take longer to melt away in the summer.
The methods marked with * are most promising for some deployment by spring 2013, given enough determination. And the methods marked ** should be implemented immediately, as largely a matter of changing or not changing regulations.
Climate response to imposed solar radiation reductions in high latitudes M C. MacCracken et al
Together, these results suggest that, until emissions reductions are sufficient to limit the warming influence of greenhouse gas concentrations, polar reductions in solar radiation, if they can be efficiently and effectively implemented, might, because of fewer undesirable side effects than for global solar radiation reductions, be a preferred approach to limiting both high-latitude and global warming.
Global and Arctic climate engineering: numerical model studies K. Caldiera et al , suggest Arctic regional cooling
is feasible and could have a global coling (as well as Arctic) effect.
M. MacCracken in On the possible use of geoengineering to moderate specific climate change impacts is a through review of the the topic including regional Arctic cooling.
Cooling in general reduces the terrestrial feedback emissions of CO2 and so slows the increase in atmospheric CO2 and ocean acidification. How ever when cooling is switched off there would be a rapid large increase in global temperature.
A paper published in 2012 by M McCracken and several climate change experts anticipated that Arctic cooling might have to be resorted to in order to stabilize highly dangerous Arctic methane feedbacks, and as a far safer cooling intervention that planetary geoengineering.
Feb 2014 S. Times Can regional climate engineering save the summer Arctic sea ice?
'...a large amount of regional solar dimming (180 W/m2 or 13% of TSI) is required by the end of the century. Regional reduction of solar radiation in this scale would be very difficult to achie...'ve