This page offers articles and papers on what is called geoengineering. A more accurate term would be detoxifying the biosphere. It would in fact be re-geoengineering because the chemistry of the atmosphere and of the oceans has already been changed to such such a degree that the biosphere is in an unprecedented no analog state (IGBP 2006).
Though civil society is strongly united on stopping any consideration of geo-engieeriong, we have geo-engineered our planet practically to death. The evidence is that planetary catastrophe is our future without drastic intervention. The safest intervention to trry would be to stabilize/restore Arctic alvbedo (snow and Summer sea ice.
Intuitively the first way to do that would be some way of whitening the surface of the open Arctic ocean. There are methods being investigated, but the latest research (April 2015) indicates it would not help much, even if there were a tecnology to do it.
That leaves airborne Arctic regional aerosol cooling, which should certainly work, and looks like the safest thing to try, to prevent Arctic feedback climate change runaway.
The radiative forcing potential of different climate geoengineering options
T. M. Lenton and N. E. Vaughan 2009
The case for at least the rapid development of a planetary climate catastrophe emergency-preparedness capacity is definite. The 2007 IPCC assessment confirms that Arctic feedback global climate catastrophe is possible. On the current world fossil fuel energy economy (tracking the worst case IPCC scenario), climate catastrophe is certain. On today's global warming and climate change commitment, it is definite. We must get below 350 ppm of atmospheric CO2, which is impossible without intervention. (Geoengineering: The Inescapable Truth of Getting to 350, Chuck Greene, Professor in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Cornell University; Bruce Monger, Senior Research Associate in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Cornell University; Mark Huntley, Chief Technology and Science Officer of Cellana)
A big concern is what effect would cooling have on world food crops. There is nothing to suggest that regional Arctic cooling would be damaging to food production. 2012 research Crop yields in a geoengineered climate indicated food production on balance would benefit if global cooling had to be resorted.