The Arctic is the fastest changing (deteriorating) region on Earth. The research is coming so thick and fast that it needs a separate page before editing it into the website sections.
In 2015 a collection of papers was published from the Synthesis Of Arctic Research (SOAR) a multidisciplinary program of Arctic scientists in marine research covering the Pacific Arctic
A 2014 paper Climate trends in the Arctic as observed from space by J. Comiso documents the rapidly deteriorating state of the Arctic with most grave implications for our future.
Four Arctic research papers published since 2011 serve to prove that the Arctic is indeed a planetary time bomb and the fuse is lit. These serve as proof that the world is a dire planetary emergency- because of the Arctic.
1. The Arctic warming is unprecedented in the last 40,000 years at least. Unprecedented recent summer warmth in Arctic Canada Oct 2013.
2. Subsea methane hydrate (most vulnerable in the Arctic) is at risk of disintegration from a 2C warming (Tipping point risk analysis 2011)
3. Research deep in Siberian caves finds "global climates only slightly warmer than today are sufficient to thaw significant regions of permafrost" A Vaks et al Science 2013
4. A 2012 review of East Siberian Arctic shelf methane concludes that "The emission of methane in several areas of the ESS is massive to the extent that growth in the methane concentrations in the atmosphere to values capable of causing a considerable and even catastrophic warning on the Earth is possible."
What effects will the loss of Far North snow and Arctic snow and sea ice have on the weather and climate of the Northern hemisphere?
NAP 2014 Lnkages Between Arctic Warming and Mid-Latitude Weather Patterns: Summary of a Workshop 2013L
March 2014 Methane producing microbes bloom in thawing permafrost - an amplifying global warming feedback.
March 2014 J Stroeve Arctic melt season is increasing. This means that even a small change in the extent of sea ice in spring leads to vastly more heat being absorbed over the summer, leading to substantially later onset of ice in the autumn. There is also a second effect, in that multi-year ice (which survives through the summer without melting) has a higher albedo than single-year ice that only covers the sea in winter. Since the 1980s, the proportion of the Arctic winter ice that is made up of multi-year ice has dropped from around 70% to about 20% today, so the changes are substantial
March 2014 NASA: Warm rivers boost Arctic sea ice melt The heat from warm river waters draining into the Arctic Ocean is contributing to the melting of Arctic sea ice each summer, a new NASA study finds.
Feb 2014 Arctic thaw significantly worsens global warming
Jan 2014 Arctic warmth unprecedented in 44,000 years, reveals ancient moss
Jan 2014 Umea University Arctic Inland Waters Emit Large Amounts of Carbon- not included in Arctic carbon budget
Dec 2013 Francis Tang Extreme summer weather in northern mid-latitudes linked to a vanishing cryosphere
24 Nov 2013 Ebullition and storm-induced methane release from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Twice as much methane is being vented as the research team estimated in their 2010 paper.